Early Modern Mythological Texts: Troia Britanica XVII, Notes2

Thomas Heywood. Troia Britanica (1609)

Notes to CANTO XVII (stanzas 71-110)

Ed. Yves PEYRÉ



Tamburlaine: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5359/1398, fol. 251v: “At this time reigned in Scythia a cruel, fierce and bloody tyrant named Tamburlanis”. Lanquet goes on to report Tamburlaine’s conquests, but does not mention Bajazeth’s iron cage, which Marlowe’s play had contributed to make famous.

in: F, int’. Back to text

Bolingbroke: F, Bullingbrooke. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5359/1398, fol. 251v: “Henry Bolingbroke, duke of Hereford, which was banished into France, being sent for of the Londoners, came into England with a small power, to whom the commons gathered in so great multitude and forsook their prince, that not long after, at the castle of Flint, they took king Richard and held him as prisoner in the tower of London, where he yielded up and resigned to the said Henry, duke of Hereford all his power and kingly title to the crown of England and France”.

Edward IV: This should read Henry IV, as corrected by readers in some copies. The mistake is repeated in stanzas 73, 74 and 75. Back to text



Aumerle: F, Aumarle. Edward of Langley, second duke of York, made duke of Aumale in September 1397. Back to text

conspire: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5361/1400, fol. 252r-v: “Sir John Holland, duke of Exeter, brother to king Richard, and the dukes of Amnarke [Aumale] and of Surrey, with the earls of Salisbury and of Gloucester, and other that favoured Richard of Burdeux [Bordeaux], conspired against king Henry and appointed privily to murder him at a feast and jousts, which should be holden at Oxenford, or, as some write, at a mumming in the castle of Windsor. But how it was, their treason was disclosed and they all for the same put to death with as many knights and squires as were of that alliance and confederacy”. The conspirators were John Holland, first earl of Huntingdon and duke of Exeter; Edward, second duke of York, duke of Aumale and earl of Rutland; Thomas Holland, sixth earl of Kent and earl of Surrey; John Montagu, third earl of Salisbury; Thomas Despenser, earl of Gloucester. The plot was disclosed by the duke of Aumale [Aumerle]. See Grafton’s Chronicle at Large (1569), pp. 409-12. Back to text

Richard: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5361/1400, fol. 252v: “King Richard was put to death in the tower of London and carried through the city that men might see him, and so conveighed to the abbey of Langley and there buried”. Grafton explains that “When king Richard had thus ended his life, he was then embalmed and seared and covered with lead, all save his face, to the entent that all men might perceive that he was departed out of this life”, Chronicle at Large (1569), p. 413. Back to text 



Glendower: F, Glendoure, possibly after Grafton’s spelling, Glendor in his Chronicle at Large (1569), p. 415. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5362/1401, fol. 252v: “King Henry went toward Wales to quiet a rebellious sedition, which was arreared among the Welshmen by one Owen Gleandere”. Heywood adds an allusion to Henry Hotspur, made famous by Grafton, Holinshed, Shakespeare and Drayton. Back to text

Worcester: F, Woorster. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5363/1402, fol. 253r: “Sir Thomas Persie [Percy], earl of Worcester, and Henry Persy [Percy], son to the earl of Northumberland, rebelled and gathered a great power against Henry of England, with whom they encountered near to Shrewsbury to their own confusion”.

Galeazzo: F, Galiazo. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5363/1402, fol. 253r: “Galatius, duke of Myllaine, departed out of this life and gave to John his son the duchy of Myllaine”. See note to stanza 68 above and John Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 edition, pp. 186-88). Back to text

Mahomet: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5363/1402, fol. 253r: “Mahomet the Turk, when he had slain his brother, obtained alone the kingdom”. Antoine Geuffroy explained that after Bajazeth’s death, “Mehemet [Mehmed I], killed his brother Musach and “possessed the empire”, Estat de la Court du Grant Turc, translated into English as The Order of the Greate Turckes Courte  (London: Richard Grafton, 1542), p. xcvii. Back to text



Charles of Cremona: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5367/1406, fol. 254r: “Charles lord of Cremona was traitorously murdered of his subject Cabrinus Fundulus”.  See Bartolomeo Platina, “Nam Cabrinus Fundulus, cuius opera Carolus Cavalcabos multum et belli et pacis artibus utebatur, spe occupandae tyrannidis elatus quod ei non secus ac Carolo magistratus omnes atque arcium praefecti parerent, redeuntem Lauda Pompeiana Carolum, ad Machasturmam ab urbe Cremona decem millia passuum cum fratribus et cognatis obtruncat” (For Cabrinus Fundulus [Cabrino Fondulo], of whose works, both in matters of war and of peace, Charles Cavalcabos [Carlo Cavalcabò] made great use, was transported by the hope of acquiring absolute power, because all magistrates and governors of citadels obeyed him as well as Charles: as Charles was coming back from Lauda Pompeiana [Lodi Vecchio] to Machasturma [Maccastorna], ten miles from Cremona, he killed him, with his brothers and relatives”, De Vita Pontificum Romanorum (Louvain: Johannes Bogardus, 1572), p. 215. The murder was perpetrated on 25 July 1406. He governed Cremona until 1420. Back to text

1406: F, 1460.

Scrope: F, Scroope. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5366/1405, fol. 253v: “Sir Richard Scrope, archbishop of York, and divers other of the house of lord Mumbray [Mowbray], for grudge that they bare toward king Henry, gathered to them great power of Scots and Northumbers, intending to have deposed him from all kingly authority, but he had knowledge thereof and made against them in so speedy wise that he came upon them unawares and taking the same bishop with his allies, commanded them to be beheaded at York”. Scrope, Mowbray and Plumpton were defeated at Shipton Moor on 29 May 1405. Scrope was beheaded on the following 8 June. Back to text

th’Academy: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5368/1407, fol. 254r: “The University of Croconia [Cracovia] in Polonie [Poland] began”. The Akademia Krakowska was first founded in 1364. After difficult beginnings it was revived in 1400 and prospered in the fifteenth century, when Copernicus, Conrad Celtis studied there.

Burgoin: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5368/1407, fol. 254r: “The duke of Orleaunce [Orléans] was murdered at Paris by means of the duke of Burgoyn [Burgundy], who shortly after died, but this grudge was so derived also to their children that the deadly hatred was still maintained with mortal war”. Charles V of France was succeeded by his elder son, Charles VI the Mad, who was unable to reign; Louis I of Orléans, Charles V’s second born son, and John the Fearless (Jean le Téméraire), duke of Burgundy competed over the regency and the guardianship of the king’s children. Louis of Orléans was murdered on 20 November 1407. The war that ensued between Burgundy and France lasted for the next seventy years. Back to text



Saint Andrews: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5372/1411, fol. 255r: “The University of Saint Andrews began in Scotland”. A school for higher education was started in St Andrews in May 1410. It was granted a charter of incorporation by the bishop of St Andrews in February 1411 and was conferred full university status by Avignon Pope Benedict XIII on 28 August 1413. Back to text

John: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5372/1411, fol. 255r: “John the young duke of Millaine [Milan] was murdered of his own people”. Gian Galeazzo Visconti was succeeded by his son Gian (or Giovanni) Maria Visconti in 1402 (see note to stanza 73 above) at the age of 13. He was murdered on 16 May 1612. Back to text

Ladislaus: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5374/1413, fol. 255r: “Ladislaus, king of Naples, conquered the city of Rome”. Philippe de Commynes reported in his Mémoires (1489-1498) that “Ladislaus lost Hungary by his father’s murder, but was at length received and crowned king of Naples by Pope Boneface [Boniface] the ninth, anno 1390, and then he chased Lewis the second out of Italy, who after his father’s death was come thither and had got some part of the realm. After Ladislaus fell out with Alexander the fifth and took Rome, whereupon the Pope gave the realm of Naples to Lewis of Anjou, who returned and vanquished Ladislaus and recovered Rome, but not knowing how to use the victory; Ladislaus recovered himself, forced Lewis to retire into France and then again took Rome, and died anno 1414”, The Historie of Philip de Commines Knight, Lord of Argenton, translated by Thomas Darnett (London: Ar. Hatfield for J. Norton, 1596), p. 389. Back to text 

Henry the fifth: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5374/1413, fol. 255r: “Henry V was crowned king of England and reigned 10 years [...] and brought France to his subjection”.



Amurath: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5376/1415, fol. 255v: “Ammurates, the son of Mahometes, king of Turks, 34 years”. Amurath (Murad II) reigned from 1421 to 1451. Back to text

John: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5376/1415, fol. 255v: “John the second, king of Spain or Castile, 50 years”. John II of Castile reigned from 1406 to 1454.

Charles: Charles VI the Mad (Charles le Fol) reigned from 1380 to 1420. See note to stanza 74 above. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5341/1380, fol. 248r: “Charles VI, being 12 years of age, was ordained king of France under the governance of his uncles, the fuke of Anjou, the duke of Berri, the duke of Burgoyn [Burgundy]”. Back to text

Martin: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5378/1417, fol. 256r: “Martin the fifth was chosen bishop of Rome”.

Henry: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5375/1414, fol. 255v: “King Henry of England sent an ambassade to Charles, the French king, making claim to the realm of France; to whom answer was made with great jesting and scoffing”; 5377/1416, fol. 256r: Lanquet’s description of the battle of Agincourt; 5380/1419, fol. 256v: “King Henry of England [...] was proclaimed Regent of France with all rights belonging to the same to remain to king Henry and to his heirs”. Back to text



Jeremy Prague: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5375/1414, fol. 255v, reports that in the Council of Constance, “M. John Husse [Jan Hus], with Jeronimus of Prage [Prague], [were] adjuged to be burned for preaching against the bishop of Rome’s usurped power”; 5377/1416, fol. 256r: “Hieronimus of Prage was [...] burned”. Jerome of Prague was one of John Hus’s followers. Back to text

Zischa: F, Zisca. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5380/1419, fol. 257r: “There was in Boheme a new sect of phantastical people, called Adamites, which went altogether naked and used their women as common [...] which company of heretics, for cruelty that they used, were suppressed by Zischa, chief captain of them which pretended to favour Husse [Hus], which then was of great power, and his adherents were named Thaborites, of a new city that they had buit”; 5381/1420: “John Zischa, captain of the Thaborites, brought under his subjection well near all Boheme and at divers encounters discomfited Sigismund, the emperor, in so much that he was fain to entreat Zischa privily to favour his part and make the Bohemes acknowledge him for their king”. Back to text

Katherine: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5382/1421, fol. 257r: “Katherine, the daughter of king Charles of France was crowned queen of England with great solemnity”.

Duke Clarence: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5382/1421, fol. 257r: “The duke of Clarence, king Henry’s brother of England, was overset by the Dolphin of France and slain, to the king’s great displeasure”. Back to text



Henry the sixth: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5383/1422, fol. 257v:  “King Henry departing out of this life in France, ordained his brother Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, to be protector of England and the dukes of Bedford and of Burgoyne [Burgundy] to be regents of the realm of France. [...] Henry the VIth was proclaimed king of England, being yet an infant of eight months of age, wherefore, continuing the time of his youth, he was committed to the tuition and governance of the noble duke Humphrey of Gloucester, his uncle”. Back to text

Joan the Pucelle: F, Ioane de pusill. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5389/1428, fol. 258v: “In these days was in France a young woman about 20 year of age, which by sorcery and devilish ways was in great estimation with the Dolphin, saying that she was a messenger sent of God to reconquer for him his heritage from the Englishmen. This woman was armed and rode in man’s apparel in warfare the space of 2 years and did many wonderful feats and got from the Englishmen many town and holds”. Back to text



Orleans: F, Orleance.

Mountagu: F, Mountacute. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5388/1427, fol. 258v: “The Englishmen besieged the city of Orliance [Orleans], continuing the time of which siege, the noble and valiant knight Sir Thomas Mountague was slain by a great misfortune, whose death was the beginning of all misery to the Englishmen, for after this mishap they lost by little and little all their possession in France”. Thomas Montagu, 4th Earl of Salisbury, fought in Henry V’s French campaigns, was wounded during the siege of Orleans and died a week later on 3 November 1428. Back to text

Sigismund: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5394/1433, fol. 259r: “Sigismund th’emperor was crowned with the imperial diadem of Eugenius, the bishop of Rome”. Sigismund of Luxembourg was crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Rome on 31 May 1433. Back to text

Eugenius: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5392/1431, fol. 259r: “Eugenius the IVth, a man utterly unlearned, being ordained bishop of Rome, demeaned himself so nicely that cruel debate and variance happened between him and the family of the noble men called Columnii, in so much that in the city was fought a sore battle, wherein many men were slain and hurt”. Eugenius [Eugene] IV, pope from 1431 to 1447, was in conflict with the house of Colonna. Back to text 

Philip: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5384/1423, fol. 258r: “Philyp of Millayn conquered Gean and made war on the Florentines”. Filippo Maria Visconti was duke of Milan from 1412 to 1447. He conquered Genoa on 2 November 1420. Lanquet also mentions him for 5392/1431 and 5394/1433, fol. 259r. Back to text

Talbot: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5395/1434, fol. 259v: “The Lord Talbot, with a goodly company, sailed into France, where he wrought much woe to the Frenchmen, but that notwithstanding, they won always upon the Englishmen both in France and Normandy”. Back to text

Sforza: F, Forza. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5395/1434, fol. 259v: “Joannes Vitellescus, patriarch of Alexandria and chief leader of the bishop of Rome’s army, reconquered the city of Rome and all the lands belonging to the Church, by the aid and help of a captain called Sfortia, through whose prowess and success in war the bishop Eugenius became very haughty and proud”. In May 1434, the Colonna established a republic in Rome while Eugene IV fled to Florence. Cardinal Giovanni Vitelleschi, Patriarch of Aquileia, reconquered the city for the pope in October, the same year. Before he became Duke of Milan, Francesco Sforza, the founder of the Sforza family, was a condottiero fighting now for, now against the pope. Back to text

The lions: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5398/1437, fol. 260v: “All the lions died in the Tower of London, which had lived there a long time”.



Zenza: F, Zeuza. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5399/1438, fol. 261r: “Zensa, king of Persia, he was a famous philosopher”. Foresti’s Supplementum Chronicorum (1483), Hartmann Schedel’s Nuremberg Chronicle (1493) and Sabellicus’s Enneades sive Rhapsodia Historiarum (1498) reported that Zenza, king of the Persians, was killed in a battle with Usuncasane in 1454. Zenza might be identified with Jahan Shah, a protector of the arts who reigned between 1438 and 1467, when he was killed in the course of his war with Usumcasane. Back to text

5402: F, 5420.

Elen Cobham: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5402/1441, fol. 261v: “In England, dame Elenour Cobham, wife to the Lord Protector, and certain other persons, were accused that by sorcery and enchantments practised by an image of wax, they endeavoured to bring out of life, by little and little, the king’s person”. Eleanor, duchess of Gloucester, who had consulted astrologers about the king’s health, was arrested in 1441 and condemned to perpetual imprisonment. She died in 1552. Back to text

Margaret: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5406/1445, fol. 262r: “King Henry the VIth, by the advice and procurement of the earl of Suffolk, took to wife Margaret, the king’s daughter of Sicily, and refused the daughter of the earl of Arminake [Armagnac] with whom he had made his first contract, which thing was cause of much misery and trouble in England, as first the losing of Normandy, the division of the lords within the realm, the rebellion of the commonalty against the prince, and the queen with the prince fain to flee the realm”. Back to text

Huniades: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5406/1445, fol. 262r: “After the death of Vladislaus, the Hungarians with one consent agreed to have to their king Ladislaus, the young son of Albert, and ordained John Huniades to be Protector of the realm”. The Diet of Hungary appointed John Hunyadi as one of the seven Captains in Chief in charge of the State during Ladislaus V’s minority. Back to text



Humphrey: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5408/1447, fol. 262v: “Humfrey, duke of Gloucester and Protector of England, by the means of certain malicious persons, was arrested, cast in hold and strangled to death in the abbey of Bury, to the great displeasure and grudge of the commons, which suspected the Marques of Suffolk of that cruel deed. This duke Humfrey, for his honourable and liberal demeanour, and good rule that he kept this realm in, was called the good duke of Gloucester”. The duke of Gloucester was arrested at Bury St Edmunds on 18 February 1447. He died five days later. Back to text

Suffolk: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5411/1450, fol. 263r: “The Marques of Suffolk was banished the land for the space of 5 years to appease the murmur and grudge of the commons of England for the death of the duke of Gloucester. In sailing toward France, he was met on the sea by a ship of war and there presently beheaded by the captain called Nicolas Toure, and the dead corpse cast up at Dover”. William de la Pole, first duke of Suffolk, was fleeing to the Low Countries when his ship was intercepted by a privateering vessel named the Nicholas of the Tower, which Lanquet took for the captain’s name. See Shakespeare’s 2 Henry VI, IV.i. Back to text

Jack Cade: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5411/1450, fol. 263r: “The commons in Kent, for grudge that they bare to certain noble men near about the king, as well for the giving up of the duchy of Angeow [Anjou] and Maine to the king of Sicily, as for divers injuries and oppressions that the poor people had suffered, raised a great commotion and on Blackheath, by the leading of Jacke Kade, overthrew the earl of Stafford having with him a good company of soldiers. Then after they came to London where, after they had put to death the lord Say with other, and committed divers robberies and cruel deeds, their company was disperkled every man to his home and their captain taken and put to death”. Shakespeare stages the uprising and Cade’s death in 2 Henry VIBack to text

Jubilee: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5411/1450, fol. 263r: “This was the year of Jubilee in Rome”.

Mainz: F, Menz.

Faustus: F, Faustius, following Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5413/1452, fol. 263v: “One named Johannes Faustius first found the craft of printing in the city of Mens [Mainz] in Germany”. Back to text  

In the 1563 edition of his Acts and Monuments (p. 362), John Foxe wrote: “In following the course and order of years, we find this year of our Lord MCCCCxl to be famous and worthy of remembrance, for the marvellous invention of printing, which that year was first invented and found out by one Jhon Guttenbergh in Strawsborow [Strasburg] and afterward by him made perfect and complete in Mentz [Mainz]”. As from the 1570 edition, he corrected his account as follows (p. 837): “In following the course and order of years, we find this foresaid year of our Lord 1450 to be famous and memorable for the divine and miraculous invention of printing. [...] The first inventor thereof, as most agree, is thought to be a German dwelling first in Argentine [i. e. Argentoratum: Strasburg], afterward citizen of Mentz [Mainz], named Ioan. Faustus, a goldsmith. [...] he made certain other of his counsel, one Iohn. Guttemberge, and Peter Schafferd [Schoeffer], binding them by their oath to keep silent for a season. After 10 years, Iohn. Guttemberge, co-partner with Faustus, began then first to broach the matter at Strausbrough [Strasburg]”. He then concluded, “Notwithstanding, what man soever was the instrument, without all doubt God himself was the ordainer and disposer therof”. Back to text

In Mainz, Johann Fust or Faust seems to have lent Gutenberg money, which he reclaimed in 1455. He established a printing press of his own in association with Peter Schoeffer. Their first book, a Psalter, was published in 1457.



Constantinople: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5414/1453, fol. 263v: “Mahomet, prince of Turks, after 50 days of continual assault made by his innumerable multitude of Turks against the city of Constantinople with exceeding force and power, obtained and conquered the same, to the great hinderance and shame of Christendom and high advancement of the Turks’ dominion”. Back to text

Saint Albans: F, Saint Albons. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5415/1454, fol. 263v: “The fire of envy that a good space had covertly smouldered between the duke of York and the duke of Somerset, with other of the queen’s counsel, at this time broke out in hot and fierce flames of war in so much that between the king, who defended these persons, and the duke of York with his allies, at S. Albones a cruel battle was fought, in the end whereof the victory fell to the duke of York [...] After which time the duke with great reverence brought the king from S. Albons to London, where by a parliament he was made Protector of the realm”. Back to text

Scanderbeg: F, Scanderbag. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5416/1455, fol. 264r: “Georgius Castriotus, called also Scanderberg, duke of Epire and Albany, was famous in divers parts of Asia and Europe for his prowess and nobleness in arms and especially for such victories as he achieved against the Turks”. George Castriot (1405-1468) became a symbol of Christian resistance to the Ottomans. See Marin Barleti’s Historia de Vita et Gestis Scanderbegi, Epirotarum Principis (Rome: Bernardino dei Vitali, 1508), translated into French by Jacques de Lavardin, Histoire de Georges Castriot Surnommé Scanderbeg, Roy d’Albanie (Paris: Guillaume Chaudiere, 1576), this French version in turn translated into English by Zachary Jones, The Historie of George Castriot, Surnamed Scanderbeg, King of Albanie (London: William Ponsonby, 1596). Back to text



Northampton: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5421/1460, fol. 265r: “The three earls [March, Salisbury and Warwick] coming from Calais with a puissant army, the 9th day of July met king Henry at Northampton and gave to him a strong battle in the end whereof a victory fell to the earls [...] and the king taken in the field. The duke of York, returning into England, made such claim to the crown that by consent of a parliament he was proclaimed heir apparent, and all his progeny after him”. Back to text

Wakefield: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5421/1460, fol. 265r: “Margaret the queen, in this mean time, in all haste possible had gathered a company of Northern men and near to a town in the North called Wakefield, in a cruel fight discomfited and slew the duke of York, with his son the earl of Rutland”. Back to text



Saint Albans: F, Saint Albons. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5422/1461, fol. 265r: “The queen with her retinue near to S. Albons discomfited the earl of Warwick and the duke of Norfolk and delivered king Henry her husband”. Back to text

York’s son: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5422/1461, fol. 265v: “Edward, earl of March and eldest son to the duke of York, came up to London with a mighty power of March men, accompanied with the earl of Warwick, and by agreement of a Counsel was proclaimed king of England and called Edward the 4th. Shortly thereupon he pursued king Henry toward York, where he gave a sore battle to the king and his company. [...] King Henry lost all and was fain to flee the land, when he had reigned 38 years 6 months. Back to text

Queen Margaret with the young prince fled to her father, the duke of Angeow [Anjou]”.



5424: F, 5224.

Mahomet: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5424/1463, fol. 265v: “Mahometes, emperor of Turky, besides the empires of Constantinople and Trepezunce [Trebizond], took from the Christians 12 kingdoms and conquered 200 cities. Back to text

Hexham:  F, Exham. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5425/1464, fol. 266r: “The lord Montague, having the rule of the North, discomfited king Henry coming out of Scotland with a great power to recover the crown: this is called the battle of Exham”. The battle was fought on 15 May 1464. Back to text

5425: F, 5225.

Lady Grey: F, Gray. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5425/1464, fol. 266r: “King Edward was secretly married to Elizabeth, late wife of Sir John Grai [Gray], at which marriage was none present but the king, his spouse, the duchess of Bedford, the priest, two gentlewomen and a young man to help the priest to mass, for which marriage rose great variance between the king and the earl of Warwick, his chief friend and maintainer”. About 1456, Elizabeth Woodville married Sir John Grey, who died in 1461. On 1 May 1464, Edward IV married the widow. Back to text

Bona: Not from Lanquet. Negociations had started to prepare a marriage between Edward IV and Bona of Savoy, the French queen’s sister, which aborted when Edward’s marriage with Elizabeth Woodville was known. Back to text



86: misnumbered 78 in F.

Henry is restored: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5431/1470, fols. 266v-267r: “The duke of Clarence, the earls of Warwick, Pembroke and Oxford landed at Dartmouth, to whom by means of proclamations that were published in the name of king Henry the commons gathered in so great companies that Edward, fearing his part, fled into Flanders to the duke of Burgoyne [Burgundy]. Then was Henry the sixth set at large and again proclaimed king by means of the earl of Warwick with other, and Edward proclaimed usurper of the crown, but that continued not long”. Back to text

Barnet plain: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5432/1471, fol. 267r: “King Edward, returning out of Flanders, arrived in the North part of England with a very small company of soldiers, but by means that he used and through his brother the duke of Clarence, who turned now to his part, he came so puissantly to London that he entered the city and took king Henry in the bishop’s palace; then went against the earl of Warwick, whom he vanquished and slew with his brother Marques Montague near Barnet, 10 miles from London. Back to text

Gloucester: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5432/1471, fol. 267r, dryly notes: “Prince Edward, the son of Henry, was put to death” and Henry the sixth was put to death in the Tower and buried at Chertesei [Chertsey Abbey]”. Gloucester’s responsibility, and the the king killed “at his prayers” may have been inspired by Shakespeare. Back to text



Cassanus: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5435/1474, fol. 267v: “About this time Cassanus, king of Persie, made sore war upon the Turks”. Uzun Hasan (Marlowe’s Usuncasane) ruled between 1453 and 1478. He was briefly victorious over the Turks but defeated by Mehmed II in 1473. Back to text

Mistress Shore: Edward IV’s notorious mistress. Not mentioned by Lanquet. See Heywood’s Edward IV.

Matthias: F, Mathias: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5434/1473, fol. 267r: “Mathias, king of Hungary, was chosen king of Boheme”. Matthias I, the Just, John Hunyadi’s son, reigned over Hungary between 1458 and 1490. Back to text

jubilee: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5436/1475, fol. 267v: “The jubilee was ordained by the bishop of Rome to be every 25 year”. On the purpose of Jubilee years and the shortening of the period between them, see Charles L. Stinger, The Renaissance in Rome (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998), pp. 43-44.

Clarence: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5439/1478, fol. 268r: “George, duke of Clarence, brother to king Edward of England, was secretly put to death and drowned in a barrel of malmsey within the Tower of London”. Back to text

Edward expires: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5444/1483, fol. 268v: “King Edward of England, making great provision for war into France, ended his life, leaving after him two sons, Edward the prince and Richard, duke of York, with three daughters”. Gloucester, the “brother most unkind” is Heywood’s addition, announcing the next stanza. Back to text



Edward: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5444/1483, fol. 268v: “Edward the fifth, of the age of 11 years, began his reign over the realm of England the 11th day of April. This Edward was never crowned, but cruelly murdered by Richard, duke of Gloucester his unnatural uncle, who after usurped the crown and was called Richard the third”. Back to text

Gaza, etc.: The list of famous humanists concluding stanza 88 and beginning stanza 89 is drawn from Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5444/1483, fol. 268v. Theodorus Gaza (c. 1398-c.1475) translated several Greek authors (including some of Aristotle’s works) from Greek into Latin, as well as Cicero’s De Senectute and Somnium Scipioni from Latin into Greek. Back to text

Sabellicus: Among many works, Marcus Antonius Coccius Sabellicus (Marcantonio Coccio) wrote a History of Venice (1487) and a universal history, Enneades sive Rhapsodia Historiarum (1498-1504). His collected works, M. Antonii Coccii Sabellici Opera Omnia, were published in four volumes at Basel (Johannes Hervagius) in 1560. Back to text

Picus Mirandola: F, Pycus Myrandula.

Aldus Manutius: F,  Aldus Minutius. Back to text



Valla: Giorgio Valla (1447-1500) wrote commentaries on Aristotle, Galen, Juvenal and Cicero. His encyclopaedic Georgii Vallae Placentini ... De expetendis et fugiendis rebus was published by Aldus Manutius (Venice, 1501). Back to text

Hermolaus Barbarus: Besides translating and editing Aristotle’s Ethics, Politics, and Rhetoric, Ermolao Barbaro (1453-1493) published a critical commentary of the text of Pliny’s Natural History, Castigationes Plinianae (Rome: Eucharius Argenteus, 1492), complemented the following year by a supplement, to which was added a commentary on Pomponius Mela’s De Situ Orbis: Castigationes Plinianae Secundae. Emendatio in Pomponium Melam (Rome: Eucharius Argenteus, 1493). Back to text

Platina: F, Platine: Bartolomeo Sacchi, Battista Platina (1421-1481). Most of his works were written between 1464 and 1475. Among the most influential, consolatory moral dialogues Dialogus De Falso et Vero Bono (Venice: Philippo Pincio, 1504) and Dialogus Platynae Contra Amores et Amatorculos (Erphurdia: Scribelita, 1510), a health and cookery book, Platynae De Honesta Voluptate et Valetudine (Venice: Laurentius de Aquila and Sibylinus Umber, 1475), a History of the popes, Platinae Historia de Vitis Pontificum Romanorum (Venice: Johannes de Colonia and Johannes Manthem, 1479). Back to text 

Monteregio: Johannes de Monteregio or Regiomontanus (1436-1476), German mathematician and astronomer from Königsberg.

Venice and Ferrara: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5444/1483, fol. 269r: “Peace between Venice and Ferrara”. The war between Ercole I d’Este, duke of Ferrara and the alliance of the Venitians and Pope Sixtus IV started in 1482 and ended with the Treaty of Bagnolo (August 1484). Back to text

Bajazeth: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5444/1483, fol. 268v: “Pazaites the Turk [...] made war upon the Souldan of Egypt, of whom he was often vanquished and put to flight with great slaughter of his men”.

Richard: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5444/1483, fol. 269r: “Richard the 3rd, brother unto Edward the 4th, through many cruel deeds obtained the crown of England”. Richard was crowned on 6 July 1483. Back to text



Two years: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5444/1483, fol. 269r: “[Richard III] usurped the crown 2 years, 2 months, 2 days”. Back to text

Charles: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5445/1484, fol. 269r: “Charles the eighth, king of France after the decease of his father Lewys”. Charles VIII, the Affable succeeded Louis XI on 30 August 1483.

Innocent: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5445/1484, fol. 269r: “Innocent the eighth, bishop of Rome, 8 years, he was given to drinking and bolling and without all shame openly advanced his bastards to great riches, honour and dignity”. Back to text

5445/1484: erroneously placed opposite stanza 89 in F.

Buckingham: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5445/1484, fol. 269r: “Grudge between king Richard the 3rd and his near friend the duke of Buckingham; in so much that for displeasure thereof  the duke conspired with divers other noble men against him and intended to bring into the land Henry, earl of Richmount [Richmond] as rightful heir to the crown”. Back to text

Henry: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5446/1485, fol. 269v: “The noble prince Henry, earl of Richmount [Richmond] with a small company of Frenchmen landed at the haven of Milbourn [Milford Haven] [...] At a village near to Leicester called Bosworth, he met with his enemies, where between them was fought a sharp battle; in conclusion, king Richard with divers other was slain and Henry obtained a noble victory; after which conquest, he was immediately proclaimed king of England”. Back to text



Ugnerus: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5447/1486, fol. 269v: “Ugnerus, after he had slain his brethren, was made king of Persie, Armeny and Media”. In his Breve Narrazione della vita e fatti del Signor Ussumcassane (1490), Giovan Maria Angiolello reported that Ugurli Mehemet (Ogurlu Mohamed) rebelled against his father Usuncasane (Uzun Hassan) and tried to usurp the throne but failed and was executed in 1477. See also De I Commentarii del Viaggio in Persia di M. Caterino Zeno (Venice: Francesco Marcolini, 1558), where he is called Unghermaumet. But Johannes Faber’s Oratio de Origine, Potentia, ac Tyrannide Thurcorum (1528), addressed to Henry VIII, mentions Usuncasane’s son “Ugent Machumet” as king of Parthia, Persia, Media, Mesopotamia and Armenia in 1475, when Mehmed II captured Kaffa: “Interim Ugent Machumet, Assimbei Suncassani filius, in regnis Parthorum, Persarum, et Moedorum, Mesopotamiae, et Armeniae regnare coepit” (Meanwhile, Ugent Machumet began to reign over the kingdoms of the Parthians, Persians, Medes, Mesopotamians and Armenians), later reprinted in Ortwin von Grätz (Gratius), Fasciculus Rerum Expetendarum ac Fugiendarum (Cologne: Quentell,1535), fol. 236 v. In his De Saracenis et Turcis Chronicon (Strasburg, Iucundus, 1550), p. 32, Wolfgang Drechsler simply stated that in 1477, “Clausit supremum diem Usuncassanus, qui Persis, Parthis, Medis, ac toti pene Orienti praesuit. Cui successit filius maior natu, hic, capite plectens fratres suos, solus regno potebiatur” (This was the last day of Usuncassanus’ life, who had reigned over the Persians, Parthians, Medes, and almost the whole of the East. He was succeeded by his eldest son, who condemned his brothers to death so as to reign alone.). Usuncasane died in 1478 and was succeeded by two of his sons, Khalil whose reign was very brief, then Iacob (Iaqub) in 1479. Back to text

Frederick: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5447/1486, fol. 269v: “Friderich the emperor made Maximilian his son partaker of the empire”. Frederick III was Holy Roman Emperor from 1440 to 1493.

Elizabeth: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5447/1486, fol. 269v: “King Henry of England took to wife Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of Edward the 4th, by which means the two families of York and Lancaster, which had long caused great division, was knit together in one”. Back to text

sweating sickness: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5446/1485, fol. 269v: “The sweating sickness began first in England, of the which a wonderful multitude died for lack of good keeping”. The first epidemics took place in 1485, the last one in 1551. Back to text



92: F, 82.

Ferdinand: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5449/1488, fol. 270r: “Ferdinand, king of Spain, by knightly force and manhood conquered again the kingdom of Granada and chased from thence the Saracens”. The Emirate of Granada was the last Muslim state in Spain. After a war that started in1482, it surrendered to Ferdinand II of Aragon on 2 January 1492. Back to text

Lambert: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5450/1489, fol. 270r: “A great business in England, by means of a priest called Richard Simon, which taking with him a young child called Lambert [Lambert Simnel], fled into Ireland and feigned to the nobles of the country that he had brought with him the young son of the duke of Clarence, nephew of king Edward the 4th and lawful heir to the crown of England; wherewith the Irishmen being excited, allied with them Margaret the sister of Edward and divers noble men of England, which gathering to them a great power of Irishmen, Englishmen and Germans, entered the land and at Stoke, met with king Henry and his host and there fought a strong battle, in the which was slain the earl of Lincoln, Francis Lovell, Thomas Broughton, Thomas Gerardine [Geraldine] of Ireland, and Martin Swart [Schwartz], a German, which were chief captain of the rebels. Richard the priest and Lambert, the counterfeit king, were taken in the field. Fabian seemeth to avouch this to be done in the year of our Lord 1487”. The battle of Stoke Field was fought on 16 June 1487. Back to text

Lovell: F, Lovel.

Swart: Schwartz, see note on Lambert, above. Back to text



93: F, 83.

A tax: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5451/1490, fol. 270r: “In England was a tax arreared of the tenth penny of men’s lands and goods, by means whereof the commons rose and slew the earl of Northumberland, for which cause Chamberlain, their captain, with divers other were after hanged at York”. Back to text

Henry: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5453/1492, fol. 270v: “King Henry arrived in France with a great army, intending to aid the Britons against the French king, but Charles [Charles VIII] by entreaty concluded peace, the condition whereof was that he should pay to king Henry forthwith for his expenses and charges in the war a great sum of money, and yearly after, as a certain tribute, 25 thousand crowns, after which agreement Henry returned into England”. Back to text

Columbus: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5453/1492, fol. 270v: “Certain new islands were found in the ocean sea, first by Americus Vespucius, and after by Christophorus Columbanus”.

Perkin Warbeck: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5456/1495, fol. 271r: “Divers gentlemen of England appeached of treason for favouring the conspiracy of Perkin Warbeck”. Back to text



94: F, 84.

a stone: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5457/1496, fol. 271r: “In Italy, a stone of wonderful bigness fell out of the air, which by the violence of the fall, as some say, broke in 3 great pieces; the colour of this stone was as it had been burned with fire”. Back to text

Audley: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5458/1497, fol. 271v: “While king Henry of England made preparation for war into Scotland by means of a payment that was granted to the king by act of parliament, a new commotion was arreared by the commons of Cornwall, which, under the leading of lord Audley, came to Blackheath, where the king met with them and discomfited the rebels, and took their captains, which were shortly after hanged, drawn, and quartered”. The rebellion lost the battle on 17 June 1497. James Tuchet, seventh baron Audley, was tried at Whitehall and beheaded on 28 June 1497. Back to text

peace: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5459/1498, fol. 271v: “A peace proclaimed between the king of England and Scotland for the term of both their lives”.

Dyrrachium: F, Dyrachium: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5459/1498, fols. 271v-272r: “The Turks took from the Venetians Methon [Modon], Naupactum [Lepanto], and shortly after Dyrrhachium [Dyrrachium: Durazzo], and with sword and fire, spoiled the province of Foriulii [Friuli]”. According to Wolfgang Drechsler’s De Saracenis et Turcis Chronicon (Strasburg, Iucundus, 1550), p. 35, in 1500, “Metho urbs Venetis erepta, die divi Laurentii. Episcopum eius loci decollari jussit Baiazethes in suo conspectu, oppidanos ad unum omnes necavit, aedificia maxima ex parte incendit. Amiserunt eodem casu Naupactum, et Dyrrhachium”. (The town of Modon was taken from the Venetians on the day of Saint Lawrence. Bajazeth seized the bishop of the place to be beheaded in his presence, he exterminated all the inhabitants, to the last one, he set fire to most of the buildings. Naupactum and Dyrrhachium were lost in the same defeat.) The Republic of Venice lost Lepanto, Durazzo and Modon to the Turks in 1499. Back to text

Katherine: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5461/1500, fol. 272r: “Ferdinand, king of Spain, married his daughter Katherine to the noble prince Arthur, who ended his life in the Easter week following”. Arthur, prince of Wales, and Katherine of Aragon were married on 14 November 1501. Arthur died on 2 April 1502. Back to text

Sforce: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5461/1500, fol. 272r: “Sfortia recovered the city of Millayne [Milan], whom while he pursued more fiercely than advisedly, he fell into their hands unawares and was taken of them into France”. Ludovico Sforza, duke of Milan, fled in september 1499 when the Louis XII’s French troops occupied Milan. On 5 February 1500, Ludovico Sforza recovered his throne. He was taken prisoner on 10 April 1500 and imprisoned in France, where he died on 27 May 1508. Back to text



95: F, 85.

Margaret: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5461/1500, fol. 272r: “King Henry of England fianced his daughter Margaret to James, the king of Scots”. The marriage treaty between Margaret Tudor and James IV, king of Scots, was signed on 24 January 1502. The wedding was celebrated in Edinburgh on 8 August 1503. Back to text

blood: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5462/1501, fol. 272r: “The figure of crosses appeared in the garments of divers persons in Germany, and drops of blood fell from heaven”.

Milan: F, Milleine.

5462: F, 1462. 

Elizabeth: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5463/1502, fol. 272r-v: “Elizabeth, queen of England, died in the Tower of London as she lay in childbed”. Henry VII’s wife, Elizabeth of York, died on 11 February 1503 after giving birth to her eighth child, a little girl that did not survive long. Back to text

5463: F, 5460.

Naples: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5464/1503, fol. 272v: “Ferdinand of Spain sent a navy of ships into Italy, where they vanquished, chased and slew the Frenchmen and recovered the kingdom of Naples with all the dominion belonging to it”. Louis XII occupied Naples in 1501, but the French were expelled by Ferdinand of Aragon in 1504. Back to text

Prester John: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5464/1503, fol. 272v: “Praesto Johannes emperor and high bishop of Indye and Aethiope”. See Francisco Alvares’s account of Aethiopa, Ho Preste Joam das Indias: Verdadera Informaçam das Terras do Preste Joam (Lisbon, Luis Rodriguez, 1540). Back to text

Ismael: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5469/1508, fol. 273r: “Ismael Sophy, king of Persie, Armeny and Hircania, became christened and vanquished the Turks in divers great battles”. Shah Ismail I reigned from 1501 to 1524. His conversion to christianity is a legend. Amandus Zierixeenses (Amandus von Zierikzee) evoted a chapter to him, De Sophi Rege Persarum, in his Chronica Compendiosissima (Antwerp: Simones Cocus, 1534), fols. 108v-111r.

Henry: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5470/1509, fol. 273r: ‘The noble king Henry the 7th ended his life at Richmount the 21st day of April”. Back to text



96: F, 86.

Henry: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5470/1509, fol. 273r-v: “The renowned king Henry the eighth, being 18 years of age, succeeded his father in the governance of this realm and reigned in great fame and nobleness 38 years. [...] King Henry married the lady Katherine, late wife to his brother Arthur, having the dispensation of Leo, bishop of Rome [Leo XIII], but not without great murmuring of the cardinals and divers learned men of other realms”. Back to text

Empson and Dudley: F, Emson. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5471/1510, fol. 274r: “Empson and Dudley, which in the time of Henry the 7th had been great rulers, were put to death to stop the murmuring and grudge of the people against them”. Edmund Dudley and Sir Richard Empson had become unpopular on account of their ruthless efficency in collecting money both for Henry VII’s treasury and their own benefit. They were beheaded on 17 August 1510. Back to text

Colet: F, Collet: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5471/1510, fol. 274r: “The worshipful clerk Doctor Collete, which builded the free school of Paul’s in London, lived at this time”. John Colet became dean of St Paul’s in 1505. He installed St Paul’s Cathedral school in new premises, gave it new statutes and appointed its teachers.

Rotterdam: F, Rhoterdame. Back to text



Selimus: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5473/1512, fol. 275r: “Selimus the Turk expelled his father out of his kingdom with all his brothers and kinsmen and after divers great battles, vanquished, chased and slew two Souldans and annexed Egypt and Arabie to his kingdom”. Back to text

Moscovites: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5474/1513, fol. 275r: “War between the Polonians and Muscovites”. The alliance of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania fought the Grand Duchy of Moscow in a series of wars during the first half of the sixteenth century. Lanquet and Heywood allude to the 1512-1522 war. Back to text

Turwin and Turney: Thérouanne and Tournai. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5474/1513, fol. 275r: “King Henry of England, being confederate with the emperor and the king of Spain, passed with a great power into France, where, having in wages under his banner the emperor Maximilian and all the nobility of Brabant, Flanders and Holland, he discomfited and abashed the whole power of France and conquered Terwine and the great city of Turney, which is said to have in it as many towers as there be days in the year”. In 1513, Henry VIII won the battle of the Spurs in the Low Countries and won Thérouanne and Tournai. Back to text



Mary: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5475/1514, fol. 275v: “A peace concluded between England and France, and on St Denis day was Lewis the French king [Louis XII] coupled in marriage with lady Mary [Mary Tudor], the king’s sister. On New Year’s day following he [Louis XII] ended his life; wherefore king Henry sent again for his sister by the duke of Suffolk and other”; 5476/1515, fol. 275v: “Lady Mary, the king’s sister, before married to the French king, returned into England and shortly after was married to the duke of Suffolk”. Heywood also mentions Charles Brandon, first duke of Suffolk , in stanza 103. Back to text

Francis: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5476/1515, fol. 275v: “Francis the first of that name succeeded in the kingdom of France”.

Mary: The future Queen Mary, born at Greenwich Palace on 18 February 1516. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5476/1515, fol. 275v: “Lady Mary, king Henry’s daughter, was born at Greenwich”. Back to text



Charles: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5477/1516, fol. 276r: “Charles, Archduke of Austriche, was ordained king of Spain”. Holy Roman emperor (1519-56) as Charles V (see stanza 100 below), king of Spain (1516-56) as Charles I, and archduke of Austria. Back to text

The City’s tumult: F, The cities tumult. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5478/1517, fol. 276r: “On May even in the city of London was an insurrection of prentices and young persons against strangers, of which divers were put to execution, and the residue came to Westminster with halters about their necks and were pardoned. This is named ill May day”. Back to text

Wolsey: F, Wolsy. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5478/1517, fol. 276v: “The cardinal Campeius [Lorenzo Campeggio], the bishop’s legate, came from Rome in ambassage to king Henry and was received with great pomp by means of the cardinal of England Thomas Wolsay [Wolsey], which was then of great auctority in this realm”.

Luther: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5478/1517, fol. 276v: “M. Luther, an Augustin friar of Wittenberg, first began to preach unto the people against pardons, and of the same matter to write unto the bishop of Mense [Mainz] and Leo [Leo X], bishop of Rome himself; and shortly after proposed certain questions of pardons, purgatory and true charity, whereby he brought those things in controversy, which before might not be spoken of”. Back to text

Turkes: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5479/1518, fol. 277r: “Selimus [Suleiman I] the great Turk, after he had with continual and bloody war Conquered Egypt, Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine, Coele [Coele-Syria], and chased out of Armenia the king of Persia, as a sudden tempest or storm, returned into Europe and besieged the city of Belgradum or Taurodurum”. The siege of Belgrade took place from 25 July to 29 August 1521, when the city was taken. See stanza 100 below. Back to text

Zwinglius: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5479/1518, fol. 277v: “Zwinglius this year first began to teach in Tigure [Turicum, i. e. Zurich], agreeing almost in all things with Luther, although the one knew not the other”.

Erasmus: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5479/1518, fol. 277v: “Erasmus wrote very friendly of Luther to the duke of Saxony and divers cardinals, and advertised Luther by letters with more moderation to proceed in his purpose”. Back to text

Arde: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5481/1520, fol. 278r: “King Henry passed over to Calais and met with Francis the French king at the camp between Arde and Guines [the Field of the Cloth of Gold, between Ardres and Guînes], where was great triumphs and many goodly sights in so sumptuous manner as the like hath not been seen”. Back to text



Charles: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5480/1519, fol. 277v and 5481/1520, fol. 278r-v: “The 27th day of October, Charles the emperor cometh to Aquisgraine [Aquae granni, i. e. Aachen], where he was solemnly received of the electors and other princes of Germany and the next day after anointed and crowned emperor”. Charles V was elected Holy Roman emperor in 1519 and was crowned in 1520.  Heywood mentioned his accession to the throne of Spain in 1516 stanza 99 above. Back to text

A book: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5482/1521, fol. 279r: “King Henry of England wrote a book against Luther, and therefore the bishop of Rome named him Defender of the Chirch”. In October 1521 Leo X proclaimed Henry VIII “Fidei Defensor” (Defender of the Faith) for his Assertio Septem Sacramentorum (Defense of the Seven Sacraments). Back to text

Buckingham: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5482/1521, fol. 279r: “The duke of Buckingham was beheaded at London the 17th day of May”. Edward Stafford, third duke of Buckingham, was accused of treason and executed: see C.S.L. Davies’ analysis in ODNBBack to text

Belgrade: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5482/1521, fol. 279v: Solemanne [Suleiman I] the great Turk conquered the city Belgrade, the most sure and strong garrison of the Christians, and vexed the country of Hungary”. Following Lanquet, Heywood already alluded to the siege and fall of Belgrade stanza 99 above.

Charles: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5483/1522, fol. 280r: “Charles V, emperor of Rome, came into England and was honourably received into London by the Mayor, the aldermen, and commons of the city, the king himself accompanying him. From thence he went to Windsor and sat in the stall of the Garter. At this time was talk between the emperor and king Henry for the marriage of lady Mary, the king’s daughter, being about the age of 7 years. After great feasts, jousts, and honourable entertainment, he departed to Hampton and sailed from thence into Spain”. Charles V had been elected Knight of the Garter in 1508 under the reign of Henry VII; he was personally installed in the order at Windsor on 23 April 1522. Back to text



Christian: F, Christierne. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5484/1523, fol. 281v: “Christierne, king of Denmark [Christian II], and his wife Isabell, being driven out of his realms by his uncle Friderike of Holst [Frederick I, duke of Schleswig-Holstein] and his own subjects for his notable cruelty came into England and were honourably received and entertained of the king”. Back to text

Surrey: F, Surry. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5484/1523, fol. 281v: “The earl of Surrey brent 37 villages in Scotland and harried the country from the east marches to the west and overthrew divers holds and castles”. Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey—then third duke of Norfolk as from 1524—was appointed warden-general of the Scottish marches in 1523. He defeated the duke of Albany’s attempt to invade England with a Franco-Scottish army and devastated the Scottish border. Back to text

Granada: F, Granade. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5484/1523, fol. 282r: “In the kingdom of Granade divers cities were swallowed and in Naples were so great tempests of wind, rain and thunderthat many towers, gret places and mighty big trees were overthrown and cast to the ground”. Back to text

The great Turk: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5487/1526, fols. 285v-286r: “Lewys, king of Hungary, by ambassadors requireth aid of the princes of Germany against the Turk, which they appointed to send, but too late, because the Turk, before their coming, had overcome the king in a great battle. [...] Lewes king og Hungarie was miserably drowned in flight from the Turk”. Louis (or Lajos) II was defeated by Suleiman at the battle of Mohacs on 29 August 1526. He accidentally drowned in the Csele stream while retreating. Back to text



Anabaptists: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5488/1527, fol. 286v: “About this time began the pestilent sect of Anabaptists, which caused great stir in Germany”.

Bourbon; F, Burbons. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5488/1527, fol. 287r: “Charles, duke of Burbone, passing through Italy to Naples in the emperor’s quarrel, besiegeth Rome and in the assault was slain. But the soldiers took the city, spoiled it and besieged the bishop Clement [Pope Clement VII] with his cardinals in the mount Adrian [Parco Adriano]”. Back to text

Vaivad: The 1559 edition of Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5488/1527, fol. 279r, stated that “Ferdinand made war upon a noble man of Hungary named Wavoyda and took from him divers castles and towns”. The April 1565 edition, fol. 287v, introduced a correction substituting “John Zepulius” to “Wavoida”. Both refer to the same person. When Louis II of Hungary died (see preceding stanza), his succession was disputed between Ferdinand of Austria and Janos Zapolya, voïvoda (i. e. prince) of Transylvania. This confusion between title and name may not have been unusual. According to John Foxe, “In the year of our Lord 1529, Ferdinandus, king of Hungary, [...] warring against Joannes Vaivoda his enemy [...], expulsed him out of his kingdom, whereupon Vaivoda flying to the Turk, desired his aid”, Acts and Monuments (1583), p. 748. Back to text

three suns: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5488/1527, fol. 287v: “This year were seen 3 suns, which in some places were included with a double rainbow”.

Katherine: Heywood sums up the report on Henry VIII’s divorce and Wolsey’s disgrace in Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5490/1529, fol. 289r. Back to text

Wolsey: F, Woolsie.

1529: F, 1528. Back to text



Tyndale: F, Tindall. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5490/1529, fol. 290v: “Wylliam Tindale first translated the New Testament into English”. Back to text

Th’arrested cardinal: Wolsey. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5491/1530, fol. 292v: “in November [the cardinal] was arrested by the earl of Northumberland at Cawood and died by Leicester as he should have been brought to the Tower of London”. Wolsey died on 29 November 1530. Back to text

Ferdinand: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5491/1530, fol. 292v: “th’emperor summoned a council of th’empire at Coleine [Cologne] to chose Ferdinand his brother king of Rome”. Charles V had Ferdinand elected king of Rome in Cologne in 1530. Ferdinand was crowned on 11 January 1531 in Aachen. Back to text

Anne Boleyn: F, Bulloine. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5493/1532, fol. 295r-v: “The king of long time had not kept company with the lady Katherine because his marriage was in controversy and by divers universities and learned men determined to be against the law of God; wherefore, on St Erkenwald’s day [14 November 1532], he married privily the lady Anne Bullein, which on Whitsunday the next year following [1 June 1533] was crowned Queen with great solemnity”. Back to text

1532: F, 1523.

Thomas Cromwell: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5493/1532, fol. 295r: “Thomas Cromwell, Master of the King’s Jewel House, began to be in great favour with king Henry and was now of the Council”. Heywood’s addition, “whom the clergy hated” echoes Edward Hall’s remark that Thomas Cromwell was one of Henry VIII’s “chief counsel and chief doer for him in the suppression of abbeys”, The Union of the two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancaster and York (1550), fol. 191v. Back to text

The king’s sister: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5494/1533, fol. 296v: “On midsummer day died the French queen, wife to the duke of Suffolk”. Mary Tudor, Louis XII’s widow and Charles Brandon’s wife, died on 25 June 1533. Back to text

Elizabeth: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5494/1533, fol. 296v: “Lady Elizabeth was born at Greenwich, the 7th day of September, between 3 and 4 of the clock at after noon”. Back to text



the holy maid of Kent: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5495/1534, fol. 297r: “Certain monks, friars, and other evil disposed persons of a devilish intent had put in the heads of many of the king’s subjects that they had knowledge by the revelation of God and his saints that He was highly displeased with king Henry for the divorcement from the lady Katherine and surmised among other things that God had revealed to a nun named Elizabeth Barton, whom they called the holy maid of Kent, that in case the king proceeded to the said divorce and married another, he should not be king of this realm one month after and in the reputation of God not one day nor hour. This Elizabeth Barton, by false dissimulation, had often practised and showed to the people marvellous alterations of her visage and other parts of her body, as she had been rapt or in a trance, and in those feigned trances, by false hypocrisy, as though she had been inspired of God, spake many words in rebuking sin and reproving new opinions, which she called heresies, and among them uttered divers things to the great reproach of the king and the queen and to the establishing of idolatry, pilgrimage and false worshipping of God, for which naughtiness she was condemned and put to death with certain of her counsel in April”. Back to text

Boleyn: F, Bulloine. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5497/1536, fol. 302r: “On May day, king Henry being at a joust at Greenwich, with the admiration of all men, suddenly departed to Westminster, having only with him six persons. The next day lady Anne Bulleyne, queen, was had to the Tower; and there, for things laid to her charge, shortly after beheaded”. Back to text

5497: F, 5494.

Erasmus: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5497/1536, fol. 303v: “Erasmus died, being about the age of 70 years”. Back to text

Jane Seymour: F, Seamors. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5497/1536, fol. 304r: “The king took to wife the right excellent and most virtuous lady Jane Seimour, daughter to Sir John Seimor, knight, the week before Whitsuntide”.

Edward: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5498/1537, fol. 304v: “On St Edward’s even, the noble prince Edward was born at Hampton Court. Shortly after, the virtuous lady queen Jane his mother died in childbed and was buried at Windsor”. Back to text



Forest: F, Forrest. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5499/1538, fols. 306v-307r: “Friar Forest was hanged and brent in Smithfield for treason and heresy with the image of Daruell Gathern [Dderfel Gadarn] of Wales, in which idol the Welshmen had a great confidence and feigned of him many strange things”. John Forest, a Franciscan friar, did not approve the king’s religious policy. He was burnt on 22 May 1538. Back to text

One of Spain: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5499/1538, fol. 307r: “In Paris, a gentleman of Tolouse [Toulouse] in Spain, for eating of flesh upon a fasting day, was first hanged, and then burned as he did hang”. Toulouse was in France, not in Spain. Back to text

marriage: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5500/1539, fol. 310r: “King Henry by authority of the clergy was divorced from his pretended  marriage made with the lady Anne of Cleve[s] and married shortly after the lady Katherine Howard”. The treaty organising the marriage of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves was signed on 4 October 1539. The wedding ceremony took place on 6 January 1540. The annulment decree was confirmed on 12 July 1540. Henry’s marriage with Katherine Howard took place on 28 July 1540. Back to text

Cleves: F, Cleeve.

king: F, kinges.

5501/1540: F, erroneously placed opposite the beginning of stanza 106. Back to text



Cromwell: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5500/1539, fol. 310r: “Lord Cromwell, late before created earl of Osser [Essex], and Walter, lord Hungerford, were beheaded the 28th day of July”. Back to text

Ratisbonne: F, Ratisbone. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5502/1541, fol. 311r: “The disputation at Ratisbone began the 5th of April”.

king of Ireland: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5502/1541, fol. 313v: “A parliament holden in Ireland where by the common consent of that realm they desired the king’s highness to take on him the name of king of Ireland for avoiding of continual war amongst them. Whereupon the king by proclamation altered his style and received the name of king of Ireland”. Back to text

Katherine Howard: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5502/1541, fol. 313v: “The lady Katherine Howard, whom the king had married, for her unchaste living and naughty acts committed with Thomas Culpeper of the privy chamber and Francis Dereham, was by authority of parliament attainted and put to death in February”. Back to text

Luther was reviled: The Council of Trent condemned Protestantism as heretical. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5502/1541, fol. 314r, merely noted that “The Pope in June appointed a general council to begin at Tridente [Trent] the first day of November following”. The following sentence indicates that “In Paris were published straight proclamations against Lutherans”. Back to text

Katherine Lat’mer: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5504/1543, fol. 316v: “King Henry married lady Katherine Latimer at Hampton Court”. On 12 July 1543, Henry married Katherine Parr, widow of John Neville, third Baron Latimer. Back to text

1543: F, 1533.



Barbarossa: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5504/1543, fol. 319r: “Barbarossa, the Turks’ captain, by the leading of Poline [Antoine Escalin des Aimars, Captain Polin], a Frenchman, came with a great navy to Tellonum, whither Augustanus Vendomensis [François de Bourbon-Vendôme] was sent from the French king with aid of men and galleys, who, joining with Barbarossa, came to Nicea [Nice], and after they had taken the town and haven, besieged the castle the 20th day of August”. The siege of Nice (then belonging to the Duchy od Savoy) by the allied troops of Suleiman II and Francis I started on 6 August 1543. The city surrendered on 22 August, but the castle remained impregnable in spite of an ultimate attack on 8 September, before the allied retreated. Back to text

Munster: F, Mounster. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5505/1544, fol. 320r: “About this time it rained blood in the diocese of Munster in Germany, not far from the castle of Sassemburge [Sassenburg]”.

Troubles with Scotland: Heywood does not dwell on the difficult relations between England and Scotland as mentioned in Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle for the years 1542 and 1543. Back to text

Spire: F, Spyre. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5505/1544, fol. 321v: “The 18th day of February began a great assembly of the Empire at Spire in Germany [the Diet of Speyer], where the emperor, king Ferdinand and all the electors and other princes of the Empire were personally present, as they seldom times has used. The princes of this council by the advertisement of the emperor sent to the bishop of Rome, desiring that he would aid the city Nicea [Nice] if it were again invaded by the Turk. He answered that he would so do if they, for their part, by concord and unity would devise to heal the sores and griefs of the commonwealth of christendom”. Back to text

Boulonnais: F, Bullenois. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5505/1544, fol. 324v: “After the Whitsun holidays, the duke of Northfolk and the lord privy seal [John Russell, first earl of Bedford] with a great army took their voyage into France and besieged Muttrel [Montreuil], where they lay until the king had won the town of Bullein [Boulogne]. Not long after, the duke of Suffolk with many other noble men passed the seas and encamped before Bullein on the east side. The 14th day of July, king Henry himself, with a goodly company, passed from Dover to Cales [Calais] and the 26th day of the same month, encamped on the north side of Bullein, after whose coming the town was so sore battered with gunshot and certain of their towers, being undermined, so shaken with force of gun powder that after a month’s siege, the captain sent word to the king that he would yield the town to his behalf on condition that all which were within might depart with bag and baggage, which condition king Henry mercifully granted, and the Bulleinois departed one and other to the number of 4454”. Back to text

the stews: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5506/1545, fol. 326r: “The stews and other like brothel houses were by the king’s commandment put down in all parts of the realm as places that did maintain whoredom, manslaughter and all other mischief and naughtiness”.

Wormace Council: The Diet convened at Worms in 1545, as reported by Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5506/1545, fol. 326r. Back to text

accite: convene.



Luther: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5507/1546, fol. 330r: “Luther being sent for by the earls of Mansfeld to make an agreement in a controversy lately fallen between them about their lands. When he came to Isleby [Eisleben], where he was born, and had preached certain sermons, he felt sick and not long after died, about the 19th day of February [on 18 February], being 63 years of age, and was carried to Wittenberg, where he was buried with much solemnity”. Back to text

dies the king: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5508/1547, fol. 335r: “About th’end of January [on 28 January], king Henry departed out of this life, appointing his first heir to be his young son prince Edward, and the second, lady Mary, his daughter by his first wife Queen Katherine, and the third, lady Elizabeth, by his second wife, lady Anne Boleyn”. Back to text

the sixth Edward: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5508/1547, fol. 335r: “The gracious prince Edward, after his father’s death, began his reign, being but 9 years of age, and on Shrove Sunday after, was crowned with great solemnity”.

reformed church: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5508/1547, fol. 338r-v: “In England, the lord Protector, with the rest of the Council that governed the realm, minding a reformation of religion, sent commissioners into all parts, willing them to take all images out of churches for avoiding of idolatry. With the same commissioners were sent certain learned men and preachers to dehort men from the superstitious use of beads and such like things, and to learn to worship God truly and unfeignedly in heart and mind, with due obedience toward their prince. Back to text

At the same time, procession was commanded to be no more used, and shortly after was a parliament holden of all the states of the realm, wherein beside other things, chantries were given into the king’s hand to be used at his pleasure, and an order also was taken for those of the Lord’s supper that it should be in both kinds of bread and wine. Certain grievous statutes also made concerning religionin the time of king Henry were repealed, and especially the Act of the 6 articles, which had brought many in trouble. For although king Henry did clean disannul the authority of the Pope, yet in all other things and uses of religion, he followed the doctrine of the church of Rome, saving that he caused common prayer in time of processions to be used in English tongue”. Back to text

Musselborough: F, Muscle-borrow. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5508/1547, fol. 338v: “The lord Protector and the earl of Warwick went into Scotland with a strong army, requiring the Scots to fulfil their promise made before to king Henry, concerning the marriage of their young queen with noble prince Edward his son, our sovereign lord. But the Scots, always unfaithful of promise, stubbornly came against them with a great puissance, and not long after, the two armies encountered in the fields of Musselborough, at a place called Pinkerslough [Pinkie Cleugh], the English part not thinking as then to have battle. At which time, because the front of the Scottish army was so terribly set with pikes, our horsemen, which gave the first onset, were fain to recule back, with loss of certain gentlemen, which reculing much abashed our footmen. But yet, by the great wisdom and diligence of the lord Protector and the valiant heart and courage of the noble earl of Warwick, and the good stomack of our soldiers, wherewith God at that present had strengthened them, they gave a new onset and without any notable fight discomfited the Scots and obtained noble victory. At this time were slain of the Scots between 13 and 14 thousand, and not passing an hundred Englishmen”. Although Lanquet underestimates English losses, he rightly points to an important disproportion in the casualties of the two camps. Heywood distorts history when he suggests that the losses were equal. Back to text

5509/1548: The battle of Pinkie Cleugh was fought on 10 September 1547 and Bonner imprisoned in 1549. 

Bonner: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, fol. 342r: “Edmund Boner [Bonner], bishop of London, as in the time of king Henryhe was ready and willing to disannul the Pope’s authority here in England, so at this time he was very earnest in the defence of all other articles pertaining to the doctrine of the church of Rome, and therefore was deprived of the bishopric and cast into the Marshalsea”. Edmund Bonner was deprived of his bishopric on 1 October 1549 and remained in prison to the end of Edward VI’s reign. Back to text



Gardiner: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, fol. 342r-v: “Stephane Gardyner [Stephen Gardiner], bishop of  Winchester, was apprehended. He had said that those things which the Protector and others did in the king’s minority were of no effect, and therefore the year before was commanded to keep his house. At this time, he making a sermon before the king and the Council concerning the king’s proceedings, he allowed the sacrament to be used in both kinds, and divers other things, but upon examination of other matters uttered at the same time, he was sent to the Tower and there continued all king Edward’s reign”. Back to text

Seymour: F, scamers. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, fols. 343v-344r: “Sir Thomas Seimar [Seymour], high admiral of England, brother to the lord Protector [Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset], and the king’s uncle, had married queen Catherine, late wife to king Henry. She—upon what occasion, I know not—conceived a stomack against the lord Protector’s wife, duchess of Somerset, and thereupon also, in the behalf of their wives, displeasure and grudge began between the two brothers, which, by persuasion of friends and the authority of the Council, was suppressed between them for a time. But ere it were long, it broke out to the trouble of the realm and, as it appeared, to the confusion of them both, for it was laid afterward to the lord Admiral’s charge that he purposed to destroy the young king and transfer the crown unto himself, and for that treason being afterward attainted and condemned, the 20th day of March [1549] was beheaded at the Tower Hill. Many at the time said that the lord Protector would not stand in his dignity long after, affirming that the fall of the one brother would be the ruin of the other. Divers also reported that the duchess of Somerset wrought his death, but whether they spoke of stomack or of truth, I am not able to judge”. Back to text

5510: F, 5500.

Arundell: Heywood found the 1549 rebellions described in Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, fol. 345r and 5511/1550, fol. 346v: “The 16th day of January [1550], one Arundell with certain other rebels in Devonshire were taken and brought to London and were hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn. About the same time, Kyte [Kett], captain of them that rose in Northfolk, together with his brother, was condemned and sent to Norwich to be hanged in chains”. Back to text

Kett: F, Ket.

Boulogne: F, Bulloine. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, fols. 345v-346r: “The king of France, perceiving such sedition and trouble in England as is before mentioned, and taking grievously the loss of Bullen [Boulogne], did not omit the occasion, but in the mean time assaulted certain holds about the town builded of the Englishmen for the defence of the same and namely took the fort called Newhaven and thereby much endamaged the English garrison that lay at Bullen. The loss of this was laid to the lord Protector because he, havong the chief government of the realm, did not see those parts better furnished”. Back to text



110: F, 111. All following stanzas are accordingly misnumbered in F. Back to text

Feversham: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, fol. 349r: “In February  [1551] was committed a very heinous murder at Feversham in Kent, where one Arden, a gentleman, was killed by the consent of his own wife. For this act, just punishment was afterward taken upon those that were the doers and consenters to the same. The wife herself was burned at Canterbury; two other hanged in chains at Feversham and a woman burnt; Mosby and his sister hanged in Smithfield at London, and Black-Will, the ruffian that was hired to do the act, after his first scape was apprehended and burnt on a scaffold at Flishing [Flushing] in Sealand [Zeeland: Netherlands]”. Back to text

Gabato: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5514/1553, fol. 357v: “About this time in England, by the encouraging of one Sebastian Gabato, three great ships well furnished were set forth for the adventure of the unknown voyage to Cataia, and by chance one arrived in Moscovia and other east parts by the north seas.” Holinshed indicates that “Sebastian Gabato, an Englishman born at Bristow”, the son of a Genoese, “professing himself to be expert in knowledge of the circuit of the world”, had already travelled in search of Cataia between in Henry VII’s reign (The Third Volume of Chronicles, 1586, p. 785), and reached Moscovia in 1553, not without great losses, but, Holinshed adds, “now the said voyage and trade is greatly advanced, and the merchants adventuring that way are newly by act of parliament incorporated and indued with sundry privileges and liberties” (p. 1083). Back to text

rumours: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5514/1553, fol. 357v: “In this time many were punished in England for talking rashly that the king should be dead, and divers also for saying that he was poisoned, for that rumour was spread throughout the realm”. Back to text

lady Jane: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5514/1553, fol. 357v: “In May, whilst king Edward lay dangerously sick, lord G[u]ilford , the duke of Northumberland’s fourth son, married lady Jane, the duke of Suffolk’s daughter, whose mother being then alive, was daughter to Mary, king Henry’s sister, which first was married to the French king and after to Charles, duke of Suffolk”. This is one of the three marriages, which, according to Holinshed, were contracted during the king’s illness “to change and alter the order of succession to the crown” thus trying to bypass Mary and Elizabeth in favour of the house of Suffolk in order to avoid the religious disruption that was feared if Mary succeeded (The Third Volume of Chronicles, 1586, p. 1083). Back to text

Guilford Dudley to the D. Northumberland: Guildford Dudley, son of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland (also spelt Guilford).



Back to Notes to stanzas 1-70

On to Notes to stanzas 111-end

How to cite

Yves Peyré, ed., 2019.  Troia Britanica Canto XVII (1609).  In A Dictionary of Shakespeare's Classical Mythology: A Textual Companion, ed. Yves Peyré (2009-).


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