Early Modern Mythological Texts: Troia Britanica XVII, Notes3

Thomas Heywood. Troia Britanica (1609)

Notes to CANTO XVII (stanzas 111-end)

Ed. Yves PEYRÉ



111: The stanza sums up Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5514/1553, fol. 358v-359r. Back to text



Bourne: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5514/1553, fols. 359v-360r: “Master Bourn, canon of Paul’s, preaching at Paul’s Cross, spoke so vehemently in the defence of doctor Bon[n]er, bishop of London lately restored and against the religion then used and instituted by king Edward that he greatly displeased the audience, wherefore they broke silence and began to murmur and stir in such sort that great trouble was feared and one of the company, as it was said, hurled a dagger at the preacher”. Holinshed indicates that doctor Bourne “was then promoted to the queen’s service and not long after was made bishop of Bath” (The Third Volume of Chronicles, 1586, p. 1089). Back to text

Ridley: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5514/1553, fol. 360r: “Ridley, bishop of London, in a sermon that he made before queen Mary was proclaimed, at the Council’s appointment, spoke somewhat against her, for which words, he, being apprehended after her coming to London, was cast into the Tower and lost his bishopric.” Cranmer’s imprisonment is mentioned on the same page. It is not before October 1555 that Ridley and Latimer were burnt in Oxford and Cranmer five months later. Back to text

Northumberland: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5514/1553, fol. 359r, indicates that Northumberland was arrested in Cambridge; then, fol. 360r, “About the 22nd of August the duke of Northumberland, who was before condemned of treason, was beheaded on the Tower Hill”. Back to text



Soliman: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5514/1553, fol. 361r: “Solyman the great Turk, about this time, caused his eldest son Mustapha to be strangled by his dumb men, ministers of murder, under suspicion of treason that was reported against him. But all was wrought by the wickedness of Solyman’s wife, who intended to advance her own son to the succession of the crown if she could dispatch Mustapha out of the way, and therefore incensed his father against him to do as is before said”. Back to text

Cardinal Pole: F, Poole. Reginald Pole. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5514/1553, fol. 361v: “Cardinal Poole, who fled out of England in the time of king Henry and was in great estimation in the court of Rome, was sent for by Queen Mary to return into his country”. Back to text

Genovese: F, Genowayes. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5514/1553, fol. 361r: “The French king [Henri II], with the help of the Turks, won the isle of Corsica from the Genowayes”. In the course of the Italian war, the Franco-Ottoman alliance took Corsica in 1553. The French returned it to the Republic of Genoa by the treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis in 1559. Back to text



Wyatt: Thomas Wyatt’s rebellion, his attempts to prevent the queen’s marriage with Philip of Spain, and his execution are reported in Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, fols. 362r-363r and 364r. Back to text

Suffolk: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, fol. 363r: “On the 17th of February, Henry, duke of Suffolk was condemned of treason and the fourth day after, beheaded at the Tower Hill”. The execution took place on 23 February 1554. Back to text

Courtenay: F, Courtney. Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, fol. 363v: “In England the lord Courtenay, earl of Devonshire, whom the queen, at her first entering, delivered out of the Tower, and lady Elizabeth also, the queen’s sister, were both in suspicion to have consented to Wyatt’s conspiracy, and for the same in March [1554] were apprehended and committed to the Tower”. As a great-grandson of Edward IV, Courtenay could be said to be “of the blood royal”, as Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle puts it, fol. 370v. He had been imprisoned in 1538 because of his family’s support of Catherine of Aragon during the divorce crisis, but was released by Mary, to be imprisoned again for his alleged opposition to Mary’s Spanish marriage. Back to text

Paul: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5516/1555, fol. 368v: “John Peter, cardinal of Theatine [founder of the Theatines], was by the cardinals of Rome chosen and proclaimed Pope the 23rd of May and was called Paul the fourth; he first began the new sect of the Jesuits and shortly after his creation made his brother’s son [Carlo Carafa] cardinal, who had always been a stout warrior and a jolly captain in the French king’s camp”. Back to text



Elizabeth: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5516/1555, fol. 369r: “Lady Elizabeth, the queen’s sister, which from the time of Wyatt’s conspiracy had been kept in the Tower, was at this time conveyed as prisoner with a number of soldiers from London to Woodstock beside Oxford, as most men thought, because that part of the realm did more favour the queen’s proceedings and was less danger to stir and rebellion than the city of London and countries about the same. All men at that time talked that the lady Elizabeth was very sharply and discourteously used by Sir Henry Beningfield [Bedingfeld] that was appointed to keep her”. Back to text

Bedingfeld: F, Benningfield.

comet: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, fol. 372v: “The 4th of March [1556] appeared a blazing star, and continued the space of 12 days”. Back to text

loans: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, fol. 375v: “This year [1557], queen Mary had taken great loans of money, a well of the city of London as also of most rich men in all parts of the realm, for the sending abroad a great number of privy seals required and had 100 pound of all such as were counted wealthy, whether they were gentleman or other. At this thing many murmured, and so much the more that there had been great payments granted and paid before by act of parliament”. Taxation was to finance Mary’s foreign policy and war effort. Back to text



dearth: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, fol. 374v: “This year [1557] also continued the great dearth that began a year or two past, in such sort that wheat and rye were sold commonly for 5 shillings and 6 shillings 8 pence a bushel, in some places above that price”. Back to text

Sturton: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, fol. 374v: “The lord Sturton with much injury and cruelty about that time had murdered two gentlemen and for the same was arraigned and condemned at Westminster. Shortly after, he was conveyed to Salisbury and there hanged the 6th day of March”. Back to text

Calais: F, Callis. After reporting the loss of Calais, Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5519/1558, fol. 376r-v, comments “Calais was first taken by king Edward the third the 20th year of his reign and to this time was kept to the Englishmen to their great commodity when they had war or any other trouble with the Frenchmen, wherefore the loss of it at this time much grieved all English hearts”. Back to text

5519: F, 5510.

Philip: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, 5519/1558, fol. 377r (misnumbered 375): “All this year king Philip was absent and returning not into the realm, whereat as many men did grudge, so queen Mary, as some report, conceived great unkindness, and not long after falling dangerously sick, ended her life the 17th day of November. Immediately after died cardinal Poole”. Back to text

Pole: F, Poole.



Henry: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 348: “The eight of September [1559], a solemn obsequy was kept in Paul’s church for the French king, Henry the second, who died of a wound which he received in running at tilt in Paris”.

Paul’s: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, fol. 379v (misnumbered 377): “in the month of June 1561 and the fourth day of the same chanced a terrible tempest and thunder and lightning, and specially about the city of London, where it did much harm in many places, but chiefly in Paul’s church of London, which by the same lightning in the same tempest was set on fire”. Also Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 349-50.

A peace: Heywood may be referring to the treaty of Edinburgh, on 7 July 1560 (the Anglo-French involvement in Scotland is reported in Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, fol. 379r, misnumbered 377) or to the 1564 peace of Troyes, although it followed (not preceded) the loss of Newhaven: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, sig. Divr.

Newhaven: The French besieged and took Newhaven [Le Havre], which was occupied by the English: Lanquet and Cooper’s Chronicle, sigs. Diiv-Diiir (unnumbered pages), with the addition that “In the time of this long and terrible siege of Newhaven, many of our Englishmen, being visited with the pestilence, returned into England, by reason whereof divers parties of the realm were infected with the plague”. Also Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 351-53. See Wallace T. MacCaffrey, “The Newhaven Expedition, 1562-1563”, The Historical Journal 40.1 (March 1997), pp. 1-21.

Stuart: F, Stewart. Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 356: “The third day of February [1565] Henry Steuart [Stuart] Lord Darly [Darnley], eldest son to Matthew, earl of Linneaux [Lennox], took his journey towards Scotland and in summer following married Mary, queen of Scotland”.



The Baden Margrave: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 357-58: “Christopher, prince and Margrave of Baden [Christoph II], with Cicely [Cecilia] his wife, sister to the king of Swethland [Sweden], in September [1565] landed at Dover and the 11th day of the same they came to London and were lodged at the castle of Bedford’s place, where, within 4 days after, she travailed and was delivered of a man child, which child was christened in the queen’s chapel of White Hall, the queen’s majesty, being godmother, gave the child to name Edwardus Fortunatus”.

5526: F, 5346.

The Burse: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 359-60: “Certain houses in Cornhill being first purchased by the citizens of London, and cost them more than 353.2 pound, were afterward sold to such as should carry them from thence and then, the ground being made plain, possession thereof was given to Sir T[homas] Gresham knight, there to build a place for merchants to assemble in, at his own proper charges, who on the 7th of June, laid the first stone of the foundation, and forthwith the workmen followed with such diligencethat by the month of November in Anno 1567, the same was covered with slate.

5527: F, 5227.

James: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 360: “Charles James, the sixth of that name, son to Henry Stuart lord Darly [Darnley] and Mary, king and queen of Scots, was born in Edenborough [Edinburgh] castle the nineteenth of June [1566]”.



Henry: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 361: “The 10th of February [1567] in the morning, H[enry] Stuart, lord of Darly [Darnley], before named king of Scots, by Scots in Scotland was traitorously murdered, the revenge whereof remaineth in the mighty hands of God”.

Shan O’Neill: F, Shan O’neile. Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 361-62: “Shan Onele, who had rebelled against the queen’s majesty in Ireland, was this year [1567] with his great loss manfully repelled from the siege of Dundalk by the garrison thereof; and afterward, through the valiancy of Sir Henry Sidney, lord deputy of Ireland, he was so discomfited in sundry conflicts that now he determined to put a collar around his neck and penitently to require his pardon. But Neile Mackener, his secretary, persuaded him first to try the friendship of certain wild Scots that then lay encamped in Clan Iboy under the conducting of Alexander Oge and Mac Gilliam Buske, whose father and uncle Shan Onele had lately killed; nevertheless he went to the said camp the second of June, where after a dissembled entertainment, Gilliam Buske ministered quarrelling talk and made a fray upon Oneile’s men and then, gathering together his Scots, hewed in pieces Shan Oneile, his secretary, and all his company”. The story is dramatised in Captain Thomas Stukeley(1596), in which Thomas Heywood may have had a hand.

The Muscovite: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 366-67: “The 17th of August [1569], an ambassador from Moscovy landed at the Tower wharf and was there received by the lord Mayor of London, aldermen and shrieves in scarlet, with the merchant adventurers in coats of black velvet, all on horseback, who conveyed him to the Moscovy house in Seding lane, there to be lodged”.

rebels: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 367: “The 24th of November [1569], the queen’s majesty caused the earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland, who rebelled in the north, to be proclaimed traitors and forthwith prepared an army for their suppression”.

1569: F, 5569.



Scotland: Elizabeth sent an army to Scotland in May 1570. Its progression is reported in Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 370-74.

Norfolk: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 373: “A conspiracy was made by certain gentlemen and other in the country of Norfolk, whose purpose was on Midsummer day at Harlestone fair, with sound of trumpet to have raised a number and then to proclaim their pretence against strangers and others”. as a result, John Throgmorton, Thomas Brooke and George Dedman “were hanged, bowelled and quartered” (p. 374).

Royal Exchange: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607), p. 376: “The 23rd of January [1571], the queen’s majesty accompanied with her nobility came to Sir Thomas Gresham in Bishopsgate street of London where she dined, and after, returning through Cornhill, entered the Burse, which place she caused by an herald to be proclaimed the Royal Exchange”.

Lepanto: F, Lepantho. Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 380: “The 9th of November [1571], great rejoicing was made at London for the late come news of a marvellous victory obteined by the christian army by sea against the Turks, the sixth of October last passed, wherein was taken and sunk of the Turks galleys and brigantines 230; there were slain of the Turks more than thirty thousand, beside a great number of prisoners taken; and about 12000 christians that had been slaves with the Turks were set at liberty”.



massacre: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 382, has a laconic statement: “This year 1572 was the massacre in Paris”. The memory of the St Bartholomew may have remained so vivid that there was no need for further detail.

Norfolk: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 382: “The 2nd of June [1572] Thomas duke of Norfolk was beheaded on Tower Hill”; and p. 383: “The 22nd of August [1572], Thomas Percie, earl of Northumberland, now brought out of Scotland whither he had fled, was beheaded at York”.

star: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 383-84: “The 18th of November [1572], was seen a star northward, very bright and clear, in the constellation of Cassiopeia, which, with three chief fixed stars of the said constellation, made a geometrical figure lozenge-wise of the learned men called r[h]ombus; this star in bigness at the first appearing seemed bigger than Jupiter and much less than Venus when she seemed greatest; also the said star never changing his place, was carried about with the daily motion of the heaven as all fixed stars commonly are, and so continued almost six months”.

Browne: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 387: “The 25th of March [1573], being Wednesday in Easter week, George Browne cruelly murdered near Shooters Hill in Kent a wealthy merchant of London named George Sanders and John Bean of Wolwich, which murder was committed by the procurement of mistress Sanders, wife to the said George Sanders, for the which fact George Browne was hanged in Smithfield in London the 20th day of April, and after hanged in chains near unto the place where he had done the fact. Mistress Anne Sanders, mistress Anne Drurie, and trusty Roger, mistress Drurie’s man, were all, as accessory, hanged in Smithfield on the 13th of May. Not long after, Anthony Browne, brother to the forenamed George Browne, was for notable felonies conveyed from Newgate to York and there hanged.

who: should read whom.

Drury: F, Dreury.

1573: F, 1373.



Frobisher: F, Furbusher. Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 399: “The 15th of June [1576] Martin Frobisher, with two small barks and one pinnace, departed from Blackwall upon his voyage for the discovery of a passage to Cathay by the northwest seas”. 

5537: F, 5435.

Essex: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 400: “Walter, earl of Essex and earl marshal of Ireland, knight of the Garter, falling sick of a [f]lask the 21st of August, deceased on the 12th of September [1576] at Divelon [Dublin?] in Ireland, and was buried at Carmarthen in Wales”. Assuming that Essex died after drinking out of a “flask”, Stow echoes the rumours of poisoning that circulated.

Cassimerus: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 409: “The 22nd of January [1578], about seven of the clock at night, John Cassimere [John Casimir], count palatine of Rhene [the Rhine] and duke of Bavaria, landing at the Tower of London, was there by divers noble men and others honourably received, and conveyed by cresset light and torch light to Sir Thomas Gresham’s house in Bishopsgate street, where he was feasted and lodged till Sunday next, that he was by the nobility fetched to the court at Westminster and after lodged in Somerset House. On the eight of February he was made knight of the Garter and on the 14th of February departed from London homewards”.

Desmond: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 416-17: “There arrived upon the west coast of Ireland certain companies of Italians and Spaniards sent by the Pope to aid the earl of Desmond in his rebellion, which fortified themselves strongly near Smerwick, in a fort which they called ‘castle del ore [oro]’, there erecting the Pope’s banner against her majesty, which when the lord Gray of Wilton, deputy of Ireland, understood, marched thitherward [...] on the ninth of November [1580]  the same [fort] was yielded, all the Irish men and women hanged and more than 400 Spaniards, Italians and Biscayes put to the sword; the colonel, captains, secretary and other, to the number of 20, saved for ransom”.

Drake: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 420: “The 4. of April [1581], the queen died at Deptford, and there, after dinner, entered the ship wherein captain Drake had sailed about the world, and being there, a bridge that her majesty came over brake, being upon the same more than 200 persons, and no hurt done by the same, and there she did make captain Francis Drake knight in his ship”.

Monsieur: F, Mounsier. Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 422: “The first of November [1581] Monsieur, the French king’s brother, duke of Aniowe [Anjou] and other nobles of France having lately arrived in Kent, came to London and were honourably received and retained at the court with great banqueting”.

1581: F, 1582. The following marginal date “5543/1582” in F does not correspond to stanza 124 (F, 125) opposite which it is placed, but which deals with events having occurred in 1583. This edition erases it as redundant with the date opposite stanza 123 (F, 124).



William: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 429: “This year 1583, William, prince of Orendge [Orange], was slain by John Jowrygny, a Wallon soldier, who notwithstanding sundry extreme torments inflicted upon his body and limbs in prison, as also having his flesh plucked off with hot pincers upon an open stage, yet he never shrunk nor craved any favour, neither repented him of the fact”. This conflates two different events: in 1582, at Middleburgh [Middelburg], one Jourigny fired at the prince of Orange and wounded him before being killed on the spot. In 1584, William of Orange was murdered at Delft by Balthazar Gerard, who, in spite of heavy tortures, never repented before his execution.

Lasco: F, Musco, a probable typographical error for “Alasco”: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 429-30: “Albertus Alasco, free baron of Lasco, vaivode or palatine of Siradia in Poland, arrived at Harwich in Essex and, on the last of April, came by water to Winchester House in Southwark, where he remained for the most part of his abode here”. As Stow noted Lasco’s departure on 22 September, Heywood could calculate that he had stayed six months.

Borough: F, Barrows. Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 431-32: “In the month of June [1583] were sent to the seas a ship called the bark Talbot and a small bark, both manned with one hundred men under the charge of William Borough esquire, clerk of her majesty’s navy, for the apprehending of certain outrageous sea rovers, who, for that they were many in number and well appointed, so boldly behaved themselves as that shortly after it was confidently bruited that they had vanquished in fight the said ship and bark, but within few days after, beyond all expectation, they were by the said W. Borough and his company discomfited and taken, to the number of 10 sail, whereof three prises, and some of the chief pirates, namely T. Walton alias Purser, Clinton, Athinson, W. Ellis, W. Valentine alias Bagh, T. Beven, and for moreon the nineteenth day of August were hanged at Wapping”.

Antwerp: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 437: “This year 1584, the rich and most flourishing city of Antwerp was strongly besieged by Alexander, duke of Parma, with eleven thousand men; all which was in vain, except he could stop all relief by water. Therefore he made a bridge over the great river of Scheld[t] by means whereof the citizens were wholly impeached of all manner of succour, so as they were constrained to submit themselves again to the king of Spain’s government, having endured a year’s siege”.



Northumberland: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 440: “On the 20th of June [1585], Henry Percy, earl of Northumberland, prisoner in the Tower of London upon vehement suspicion of high treason, was found there to have murdered himself”.

5586: F, 5546.

Carleill: F, Carleile. Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 442: “The 14th of September [1585], Sir Francis Drake, general as well by sea as by land, Christopher Carlile [Carleill] esquire, lieutenant general M[artin] Furbusher [Frobisher], with divers other gentlemen, captains, and 2300 soldiers and sailors in 22 ships and pinnaces, departed from Plymouth, and passing by the isles of Bayon [the Cies islands, at the mouth of the Vigo river, off Galicia] and the Canaries, arrived at Saint Iago [Santiago], which city they took and burned; after, they sailed to Saint Domingo, which they spoiled and ransomed; from thence to Carthagena [in Columbia], which they also took, spoiled, and ransomed; and retiring homewards, razed and burned the city and fort of St Augustine in Terra Florida; and the 27th of July in Anno 1586, arrived at Plymouth”.

Leicester: F, Liester. Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 443: “On the sixth of December [1585], the lord Robert Dudley, earl of Leycester, lord lieutenant general, with his train, entered the town of Colchester in Essex, where he lodged; on the next morrow he set forward to Harwich, and on the 8th of December, the said earl, accompanied with the earl of Essex, the lord North, the lord Audley, Sir W. Russell, Sir Thomas Sherley, Sir Arthur Basset, Sir Walter Waller, Sir Gervase Clinton and other with his train to the number of 50 sails of ships and hoys, set forward towards Flushing, where by Sir Philip Sidney, governor, and others he was honourably entertained, as he was the like into all other towns of the Low Countries”.



Ambassadors: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 448-49: “The 8th of May [1586], arrived at London on the Tower wharf Henry Ramolins, chancellor for Germany, ambassador from Frederick the 2nd, king if Denmark unto the queen’s majesty of England [...] and returned on the 30th of May towards Denmark”.

Arundel: F, Arundell. Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 450: “The 17th of May [1586], Philip [Howard], earl of Arundell, was conveyed from the Tower of London to Westminster and there in the Star Chamber, by the Council condemned to pay £ 10000 fine for his contempt, and to remained in prison at the queen’s pleasure”. He died in the Tower in 1595 and was considered a catholic martyr.

league: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 450-51: “A commission was directed from her majesty, tending to the ratifying of a firm league of amity between her majesty and James, king of Scots, which league being articled, commissioners were appointed, Edward, earl of Rutland, W[illiam] lord Evers [Eure], and T. Randolp[h] esquire, who with their train came to Barwicke [Berwick upon Tweed] on the 19th of June [1586], where, the ambassadors of Scotland being present, they accomplished the matter according to the commission, the articles of the said league in all and every part sufficiently confirmed on the 1st of July”.

5587/1586: in F, this date stands opposite stanza 125 (F, 126), where it does not belong. We give it its proper place opposite stanza 126 (F, 127), which is wholly devoted to the year 1586.

Candish: Thomas Cavendish. Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 452: “Thomas Candish having of his own charges built and furnished for two years’ provision a ship called the Desire of 140 tons and a less of 60 tons named the Content, joining thereto a bark of forty tons named the Galliane [Gallant], in which fleet were 125 men, set sail from Plymouth on the 21st of July [1586] and began his voyage about the globe of the earth, which voyage he finished in the space of two years and less than two months, as ye may read in R[ichard] Hacluyt [Hakluyt]”. 

fourteen traitors: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 452-54: “In the month of July [1586], divers traiterous persons were apprehended [...] 7 of them appeared at Westminster on the 13th of September, who all pleaded guilty and were condemned. On the 15th of September, other 7 were likewise arraigned, who pleaded not guilty, were found guilty by the jury and had judgement. These traitors 14 in number were executed in Lincoln’s Inn fields”.

Sir Philip Sidney: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 454-55: “The 22nd of September [1586] Sir Philip Sidney knight, a most valiant and towardly gentleman, son and heir to Sir Henry Sidney late deceased, in service of his prince and defence of his country in the wars of the Netherlands, was shot into the thigh with a musket at Zutphen, Gelderland, whereof he died on the 17th of October, whose body was conveyed into England and on the 16th of February conveyed from the Minories without Algate of London through the principal streets of the same city, accompanied of many honourable persons, unto St Paul’s church, and there honourably buried”.



A parliament: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 456-57, indicates a session in parliament on 29 0ctober [1586] and another on 2 December, proroged to 15 February, “for trial of matters concerning Mary, queen of Scots”. Mary was executed on 8 February 1587. Heywood may not have fount it tactful to develop the subject.

Armada: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 465-66: “The 19th of July [1588] intelligence was brought to the lord Admiral [...] that the Spanish fleet was seen in the sea, about the land’s end. The 20th of July, th lord Admiral made toward the sea [...] having by the power of God wonderfully overcome them, he returned to Margate in Kent. Now the camp being kept at Tilburie in Essex, under the charge of the earl of Leicester, the 9th of August, her majesty repaired thither [...] and lodged that night and the night following”.

Leicester: F, Leister. Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 468: “The 4th of September [1588] deceased Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, lord Steward of her majesty’s household, lieutenant general and marshall of England”.



Portugal: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 472-73: “The 18th of April [1589], Sir John Norris and Sir Francis Drake, generals, with six of her majesty’s ships, 20 ships of war and 100 fit for burden, having in them a choice company of knights, captains, gentlemen and soldiers, departed from Plymouth and the 23rd of the same arrived at the Groine [La Coruña]. The 26th, they took the lower town with great store of ordnance, victuals, cables and other furniture for shipping. About the 6th of May, they fought with the Spaniards at Borges bridge, where the enemies fled with the loss of 700 men. The lower town of Groine [La Coruña] was burned, and the 9th of May our fleet set sail. The thirteenth, the earl of Essex, Sir Philip Butler and Sir Roger Williams met the said fleet so that on the sixteenth, the whole navy arrived at Phinicha [Peniche], where they set aland and the same day won both town and castle. After this, they divided the army, whereof part marched with Sir John Norris by land to Lisborne [Lisbon], the rest with Sir Francis Drake passed by seas to Casteales [Cascais]. The 24th, our men entered the suburbs of Lisborne [Lisbon], where they obtained rich spoils and plenty of every good thing. The 27, the army left Lisborne and came to Casteales [Cascais] and thence returned for England, but landing at Wigo [Vigo], they took the town and wasted the country”.

Lodwicke Grewill: Ludovic Grevill. Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 475: “The 6th of November [1589], Lodowicke Grivell of Warwickshire, esquire, was brought from the Tower of London to Westminster and there, at the king’s bench bar, for murder and other notorious trespasses wherewith he was charged, arraigned and found guilty; but standing mute, had judgement to be pressed to death, which judgement was put to execution in the geol of the king’s bench in Southwark on the 14th of November, on the which day, for the same fact, his man was hanged in the palace court at Waestminster”.

Guise: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 477-78: “This year 1589, Henry, duke of Guise and his brother the cardinal guise were both slain by commandment of the French king Henry the third. [...] Within a while after, the said king Henry the third was also slain by a friar in revenge of the death of the two brethren before named.

Henry III: F, Henry 4 (instead of 3).

Bourbon: F, Burbon. Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 478: “This Henry the third was the last of the house of Valois and presently upon his death Henry of Burbon [Bourbon], king of Navarre, laid just claim to the crown”.



Paris:  Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 478-79: “[Elizabeth] speedily sent a resolute army unto him, under command of the lord Willowbie. And from that time the queen aided him with divers armies, under the command of the earl of Essex, general Norris, Sir Roger Williams and many others [...] The next year following, the great and ancient city of Paris was besieged by their new king, Henry the fourth”.

Hacket: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 484-85: “The 16th of July [1591], Edmund Coppinger and Henry Art[h]ington, gentlemen, came into Cheap [Cheapside] and there in a cart proclaimed news from heaven, as they said, to wit that one William Hacket, yeoman, represented Christ by partaking his glorified body by his principal spirit, and that they were two prophets, the one of mercy, the other of judgement, called and sent of God to assist him in his great work, etc. These men were afterward apprehended. The twenty of July, Hacket was arraigned and found guilty, as to have spoken divers most false and traiterous words against her majesty, to have razed and defaced her arms, as also her picture, thrusting an iron instrument into that part that did represent the breast and heart, etc. For the which he had judgement and on the 28 of July brought from Newgate to a gibbet by the cross in Cheap, where being moved to ask God and the queen forgiveness, he fell to railing and cursing of the queen’s majesty and began a most blasphemous prayer against the divine majesty of God. He was there hanged, bowelled, and quartered”.

plague: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 493-94: “The whole number this year buried within the city of London, the suburbs, and other places adjoining, as well of the plague as of the other diseasesfrom the 20 of December in the year 1592 until the 20 of December 1593 was as followeth: within the walls, of all diseases, 8598, whereof of the plague, 5390; without the walls and in the liberties, 9295, the plague, 5285. So that within the city and liberties, of all diseases 17863, whereof the plague was 10675”.

Lopes: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 494: “The last of February [159’], Rodoricke Lopez [Lopes], a Portugal, as it was said, professing physic, was arraigned in the Guildhall of London, found guilty, and had judgement as of high treason for conspiring her majesty’s destruction by poison”; p. 496: “The 7 of June, doctor Lopez and two other Portugals were drawn from the king’s bench in Southwark and so through the city to Tiborne [Tyburn], and there hanged, bowelled, and quartered”.



Cadiz: F, Cales.  But neither in the fuller Annals nor in the Abridgement does Stow refer to the Spaniards’ capture of Calais in 1596 (he only mentions that it was restored to the French in 1598). It is more likely that Heywood, like Stow, chose to remember the capture of Cadiz. Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 505-06: “Sunday the eighth of August [1596], great triumph was made in London for the good success of the earl of Essex and his company in Spain, the winning, sacking, and burning of the famous town of Cadiz , the overthrow and burning of the Spanish navy”.

Boulogne: F, Bulloine. Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 507: “The 29 of August [1596], the duke of Bolloine [Boulogne] being arrived in England, came to the court at Greenwich and there, by oath for the king his master, confirmed the league of amity betwixt the two realms of England and France”.

Th’islands voyage: summarily referred to in Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 510-11, but fully reported in Stow’s Annals (1605 ed.), pp. 1300-1302.

Ambassadors: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 512: “This year also [1597], Arnold Whitfield, chancellor of Denmark, ambassador, and Christian Barnkun, his assistant, from the king of Denmark arrived here and were lodged in Fenchurch street”.

John de Portorico: F, Porterico. Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 517: “The 2 of October [1598], the earl of Comberland [Cumberland] came aland about Limehouse or Radcliff besides London, being returned from the seas and having amongst other valiant acts made spoil of the strong town and castle of Saint John de Portarico [San Juan, Puerto Rico]”.

Burleigh: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 516-17: “On the fourth of August [1598], Sir William Cecil, knight of the order, Lord Burleigh, master of the Wards and Liveries, Lord High Treasurer of England, a famous counselor to the queen’s majesty during all her reign—and likewise had been to king Edward the sixth—; who, for his singular wisdom was renowned throughout all Europe, departed this mortal life at his house by the Strand”.



Essex: His departure from and return to London are reported in Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 518-19 and 522 respectively.

Tyrone: Hugh O’Neill, earl of Tyrone.

muster: reported in Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 520-22. 

Mountjoy: F, Montjoy. Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 523: “The 8 of February [1600], Charles Blount lord Mountjoy departed towards Ireland as Lieutenant there”.

Gowrie: F, Gowry. Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 525: “The 5 of August [1600], Charles James, king of Scots, in Scotland escaped a strange and strong conspiracy practised by the earl of Gowrie and his brother”.



Peace: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 525: “A peace being concluded at Veraine [Vervins] in France, in the year 1598 between Henry the fourth, king of France and Navarre and Philip the second, king of Spain, the queen of England was likewise invited by the French king, her confederate ally, to dispose herself unto a like treaty of amity with Spain”.

legates: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 528: “The 8 of August 1600 came ambassadors from Abdela Wayhetanowne, king of Barbary”. Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud ben Mohammed Anoun was the ambassador, sent by Mulay Ahmad al-Mansur, king of Morocco. Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 529: “The 18 of September came ambassadors from Borris Pheodorowich [Boris Fyodorovich Godunov], emperor of Russia”.

insurrection: the Essex uprising, Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 534-35.

Mar: F, Marre. Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 537: “The fifth of March [1601], the earl of Marre [John Erskine, earl of Mar], the lord of Krynters [Edward Bruce of Kinloss] in commission, ambassadors, and others from Scotland came to London”.

Desmond: Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), pp. 538-39: “The 26 of August [1602], Desmond and another knight brought out of Ireland, were conveyed to the Tower of London”. James FitzThomas FitzGerald died in the Tower, probably in 1608.



Biron: F, Byron. Stow’s English Chronicle (1607 ed.), p. 539: “About the 5 of September [1602], certain noblemen and other of France to the number of 300 persons, arrived at the Tower wharf; the chief of them were conveyed in coaches trough the city into Bishopsgate Street and there, the principal, namely marshall de Biron, was lodged in Crosby place”. In Troia Britanica, his title (marshal) becomes a quality (martial).  

Back to Notes (stanzas 1-70, 71-110)

How to cite

Yves Peyré, ed., 2019.  Troia Britanica Canto XVII (1609).  In A Dictionary of Shakespeare's Classical Mythology: A Textual Companion, ed. Yves Peyré (2009-).


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